EXCERCISE AND TRAINING

Remember it! Test it!

Remember it! Test it!


Remember It!

  • The principles to remember in order to make training sessions as effective as possible are specificity, overload, progression and reversibility.
  • When tailoring a programme to meet the needs of an individual you need to take the following into consideration: frequency, intensity, time and types (FITT).
  • A training programme needs to fit the individual and a number of physical and environmental factors need to be taken into consideration.
  • Training can be aerobic, which is predominantly aimed at cardiovascular fitness, or anaerobic, which trains the muscles to work without oxygen.
  • Fitness factors can be developed using specific training methods and different sports
  • Maximum heart rate (MHR) = 220 – age
  • The aerobic target zone is between 60% and 80% of your MHR. So, at 60% of your MHR you’ve gone over the aerobic threshold.
  • The anaerobic target zone is between 80% and 100% of your MHR. So, at 80% of your MHR you’re crossed the anaerobic threshold.
  • Anaerobic exercise requires no oxygen but has a longer recovery rate.
  • A training session should start with a warm up and end with a cool down.
  • Physical exercise has both immediate and long term effects. The long term effects change your muscles, bones and joints, and your cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
  • The amount of fatigue and stress suffered by a person depends on a number of mental and emotional factors.

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Test It!

  1. In which of the following exercises would you be most likely to respire aerobically?
    1. 15km cross country run
    2. Jumping to shoot in basketball
    3. Long jump
    4. Shot put
  2. There are different types of training depending on the sport involved.
    1. Describe what ‘Fartlek training’ is and the benefits of it.
    2. When tailoring a programme for the goals of an individual what are the four main areas that need to be brought into play?
      1. ___________________________________________
      2. ___________________________________________
      3. ___________________________________________
      4. ___________________________________________
  3. Paul enjoys lifting weights. It’s important for him to warm up before he begins.
    1. Name two other safety precautions he needs to take before beginning his training session.
      1. ___________________________________________
      2. ___________________________________________
    2. If he didn’t carry out these safety precautions give an example of a problem he could have.
    3. In weights, the number of times you lift weights is known as:
      1. overload
      2. sets
      3. repetitions
      4. curls
    4. After Paul has finished a work out it’s important for him to cool down. Explain a good cool down after an intensive training.

ANSWERS

  1. 15km cross country run
    1. The speed and terrain is varied for walking, running, cycling or skiing. It’s good for aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
      1. frequency
      2. intensity
      3. time
      4. type
    1. Examples:
      1. take part in an induction programme
      2. wear the correct clothing
      3. seek professional help
      4. take of any jewellery
      5. make sure he has access to the right equipment
      6. use safe equipment
      7. know what his limits are
      8. know the principles of training
      9. use correct technique
      10. ensure that his floor surface is safe
      11. ensure that he has sufficient height
      12. ensure spotter is available
      13. keep hydrated
      14. complete a risk assessment
    2. Examples
      1. Seek professional help: makes sure he uses the right techniques to prevent injury.
      2. Appropriate clothing or no jewellery: stops him getting caught in the machines and so prevent injury.
      3. Appropriate safe equipment: makes sure he practices safely.
      4. Know his limits or understand the principles of training: prevents injury as he can progress at a safe pace.
      5. Correct techniques: help to prevent muscle strain.
      6. Ensure safe floor surface: prevents slipping or tripping over equipment.
      7. Sufficient height: stops any equipment hitting the ceiling or falling on top of him.
      8. Ensure spotter is available: in case he needs assistance, for example taking weights off him.
    3. repetitions
    4. An aerobic phase (like jogging or walking) followed by a stretch phase. Each phase should last between 5 and 10 minutes.

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Some top tips!

  1. Print out the Test It! Questions – it will allow you to replicate exam conditions and also allows you to give your eyes a rest from the computer screen whilst doing your crucial revision.
  2. Make a copy of the Remember It! Section and put in a place that you often look at. i.e. front of a journal, next to a mirror, on a kitchen cupboard door, etc. That way you can do some cheeky PE revision whilst doing those things you have to do!

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