Organic Synthesis and Analysis

Organic Synthesis

Organic Synthesis

A large number of organic products can be produced from only a few initial compounds and the required reagents. For your exam you will need to be aware of the following organic pathways.

Pathway Reagents Conditions Equation NB
alkane ? chloroalkane chlorine UV light Example:CH4 + Cl2 ? CH3Cl + HCl In this reaction a new functional groups is introduced onto the molecule
chloroalkane ? alcohol aqueous NaOH warm, reflux R-Cl + NaOH ? R-OH + NaCl
chloroalkane ? alkene alcoholic KOH heat, distillation Example:CH3CH2Cl + KOH ? CH2=CH2 + KCl +H2O
chloroalkane ? nitrile aqueous KCN heat, reflux R-Cl + KCN ? R-CN + KCl In this reaction an extra carbon atom is introduced onto the molecule
chloroalkane ? primary amine excess ammonia heat R-Cl + 2NH3 ? R-NH2 + NH4Cl
primary amine ? secondary amine chloroalkane warm R1-NH2 + R2-Cl ? R1R2NH + HCl
secondary amine ? tertiary amine chloroalkane warm R1R2NH + R3-Cl ? R1R2R3N + HCl
tertiary amine ? quaternary ammonium salt chloroalkane warm R1R2R3N + R4-Cl ? R1R2R3R4N+Cl
alkene ? alkane hydrogen,Ni catalyst 150