Training principles and Training methods

Training principles and Training methods

Using these principles it’s possible to create a training programme which is relevant to an individual’s specific requirements. People are individuals with different needs according to a number of factors.

Factor Affects
Age An individual’s physical maturity will mean that they’re suitable for particular activities over others: different periods of development will have an effect on what their body can and cannot do. How well an individual performs is also based on they age.
Disability Disability can take the form of physical or mental and can be either temporary or permanent. Either way, a disability will affect performance and participation.
Gender Males and females have different physiques, metabolisms and hormones. These can have an effect on performance and participation.
Physique Different body shapes are most suited towards a particular sport or activity.
Environment The environment in which someone trains or plays will affect their performance. For example the weather, humidity, altitude, pollution, terrain, and facility access.
Training year For example pre-season, competition or closed season.
Risk and challenge Risk assessments and risk control for both themselves and other people are important in order to participate safely in different environments.
Activity levels The different needs and effects of a specific activity.
Training The funds and time available for training will have an impact on how well an individual performs.


Training methods

There are two main types of training:

      • Aerobic exercise: aerobic exercise is where the training is kept at a slow pace to ensure that oxygen is continuously able to reach the muscles. This is particularly targeted at athletes who want to increase their cardiovascular fitness.
      • Anaerobic exercise: anaerobic exercise is where not enough oxygen is able to reach the muscles in time and so the cells have to start respiring without it which produces the waste product lactic acid. The exercise takes place in short, hardworking bursts and helps train the muscles to work without enough oxygen.

Each fitness factor can be developed by using a particular training method as laid out in the table below. Different sports can be used depending on the training method.

Training method Description Fitness factors
Circuit training A number of exercises are carried out in a series, each at a different ‘station’ A number of exercises are carried out in a series, each at a different ‘station’Cardiovascular fitness
Continuous training A work out that lasts for a sustained amount of time without any breaks A work out that lasts for a sustained amount of time without any breaks
Cross training Using a different sport or activity other than the one wanting to be improved This depends on the sport or activity chosen by the individual
Fartlek training (‘speed play’) The speed and terrain is varied for walking, running, cycling or skiing Aerobic fitnessAnaerobic fitnessSpeed
Interval training Exercising hard but with periods of rest in between Muscular endurance
Weight training Using weights to submit the muscles to resistance Muscular strength (with high weight and low rep)Muscular endurance (with many sets of low weight and high reps)Power (with rapid reps using a medium weight)
Altitude training Training in an conditions high above sea level in which the level of oxygen in the atmosphere is low Aerobic fitness