RESEARCH METHODS

Remember it, Test it!

Remember it, Test it!

Remember It!

  • Hypothesis:
      • A testable theory with a dependent and independent variable.
  • Experimental designs:
      • Repeated measures
      • Matched pairs
      • Independent groups
  • Standardised procedures:
      • Random allocation
      • Counterbalancing
      • Extraneous variables (to be controlled if possible)
      • Instructions (including briefing and debriefing)
  • Sampling methods
      • Opportunity sampling
      • Random sampling
      • Systematic sampling
      • Stratified sampling
  • Averages and range
      • Mean – totals added and divided by number of values
      • Mode – most recurring figure
      • Median – the middle value
      • Range – subtract lowest value from highest
  • Survey methods
      • Questionnaires (with closed and open questions)
      • Interviews (face-to-face or telephone)
  • Observation studies(in which the following may be used)
      • A confederate
      • Categories of behaviour
      • Inter-observer checks
  • Ethical considerations in research
      • Confidentiality
      • Informed consent
      • Qualifications
      • Professional Integrity

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Test It!

  1. What is a hypothesis?
  2. What are the three experimental designs?
  3. What is meant by the terms ‘random allocation’, ‘counterbalancing’ and ‘extraneous variables’?
  4. What are the different sampling methods?
  5. How do you calculate the mean, mode and the median?
  6. What is an anomalous result and how can it be dealt with?
  7. Identity three ethical issues a psychologist may have to consider when conducting an experiment.
  8. What is the difference between a structured and an unstructured interview? Identify an advantage and a disadvantage of each.
  9. What is meant by the term ‘ecological validity’?
  10. What is a case study and what are its advantages?

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Some top tips!

  1. Print out the Test It! Questions – it will allow you to replicate exam conditions and also allows you to give your eyes a rest from the computer screen whilst doing your crucial revision.
  2. Make a copy of the Remember It! Section and put in a place that you often look at. i.e. front of a journal, next to a mirror, on a kitchen cupboard door, etc. That way you can do some cheeky revision whilst doing those things you have to do!