SEX AND GENDER

Remember it, Test it!

Remember it, Test it!

Sex identity and gender identity

  • Sex identity refers to whether we are male/female.
  • Gender identity is about behaviour and perception.

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Psychodynamic theory

      • A child between 3-5 goes through the phallic stage.
      • We are driven by strong unconscious sexual urges.
      • The Oedipus complex: the boy desires the mother.
      • The complex is resolved by identifying with the father.
      • The Electra complex: the girl desires the father
      • The complex is resolved by identifying with the mother.
      • Gender disturbances caused by absent father.

Freud’s theory criticised for lacking evidence.

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Social learning theory

  • Children observe behaviour of same-sex parent and role models.
  • Vicarious reinforcement.
  • TV plays a large role in this development.

Criticised for not considering genetics as part of the answer.

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Gender schema theory

  • Mental frameworks that grows with age.
  • A sliding scale between low and high gender schematised children.
  • Levy and Carta (1989) found that kids low on the scale went forless gender stereotyped toys.
  • This theory is well supported by evidence.
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Test It!

  1. What is the difference between sex identity and gender identity?
  2. What is the psychodynamic theory of gender development? What criticisms have been made of this theory?
  3. What is the gender learning theory of gender development?
  4. What criticisms have been made of this theory?
  5. What links have been made between television and gender identity?
  6. What is the gender schema theory of gender development. What criticisms have been made of this theory?
  7. Describe an experiment that has been done on children and gender identity. Be sure to mention aims, method, results and conclusions.