LEARNING

Remember it, Test It!

Remember it, Test It!

  • Learning through association
      • Unconditioned response
      • Unconditioned stimulus
      • Conditioned stimulus
      • Conditioned response
      • Extinction
      • Spontaneous recovery
      • Generalisation
      • Discrimination
  • Law of Effect
  • Operant conditioning
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Treating Phobias
      • Flooding
      • Systematic desensitization (hierarchy of fears)
  • Changing unwanted behaviour
      • Aversion therapy (use of emetics)
      • Token economy programme (use of rewards)
  • Ethical Issues
      • Flooding and aversion therapy can be distressing
      • Token economy doesn’t encourage internal desires to change

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Test It!

  1. Describe what process is involved in classical conditioning. Be sure to mention the following terms: unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR).
  2. What is meant by each of the following terms? Extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalisation and discrimination. You may wish to refer to Pavlov’s studies to illustrate your answer.
  3. What are some of the practical applications of classical conditioning?
  4. What is operant conditioning?
  5. What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
  6. How might conditioning procedures be applied to the treatment of phobias?
  7. What ethical issues might be attached to these types of treatment?
  8. How does a token economy programme work?

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Some top tips!

  1. Print out the Test It! Questions – it will allow you to replicate exam conditions and also allows you to give your eyes a rest from the computer screen whilst doing your crucial revision.
  2. Make a copy of the Remember It! Section and put in a place that you often look at. i.e. front of a journal, next to a mirror, on a kitchen cupboard door, etc. That way you can do some cheeky psychology revision whilst doing those things you have to do!